Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
(Bloom 1956)

Categories in the Cognitive Domain:
(with Outcome-Illustrating Verbs)

  1. Knowledge remembering of previously learned material; of terminology; specific facts; ways and means of dealing with specifics (conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology); universals and abstractions in a field (principles and generalizations, theories and structures):
    Knowledge is (here) defined as the remembering (recalling) of appropriate, previously learned information.
    • defines; describes; enumerates; identifies; labels; lists; matches; names; reads; records; reproduces; selects; states; views; writes;.

  2. Comprehension: Grasping (understanding) the meaning of informational materials.
    • classifies; cites; converts; describes; discusses; estimates; explains; generalizes; gives examples; illustrates; makes sense out of; paraphrases; restates (in own words); summarizes; traces; understands.

  3. Application: The use of previously learned information in new and concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best answers.
    • acts; administers; applies; articulates; assesses; charts; collects; computes; constructs; contributes; controls; demonstrates; determines; develops; discovers; establishes; extends; implements; includes; informs; instructs; operationalizes; participates; predicts; prepares; preserves; produces; projects; provides; relates; reports; shows; solves; teaches; transfers; uses; utilizes.

  4. Analysis: The breaking down of informational materials into their component parts, examining (and trying to understand the organizational structure of) such information to develop divergent conclusions by identifying motives or causes, making inferences, and/or finding evidence to support generalizations.
    • analyzes; breaks down; categorizes; compares; contrasts; correlates; diagrams; differentiates; discriminates; distinguishes; focuses; illustrates; infers; limits; outlines; points out; prioritizes; recognizes; separates; subdivides.

  5. Synthesis: Creatively or divergently applying prior knowledge and skills to produce a new or original whole.
    • adapts; anticipates; collaborates; combines; communicates; compiles; composes; creates; designs; develops; devises; expresses; facilitates; formulates; generates; hypothesizes; incorporates; individualizes; initiates; integrates; intervenes; invents; models; modifies; negotiates; plans; progresses; rearranges; reconstructs; reinforces; reorganizes; revises; structures; substitutes; validates.

  6. Evaluation (On same level as synthesis?): Judging the value of material based on personal values/opinions, resulting in an end product, with a given purpose, without real right or wrong answers.
    • appraises; compares & contrasts; concludes; criticizes; critiques; decides; defends; interprets; judges; justifies; reframes; supports.



Other Domains for Educational Objectives:
  • Affective Domain (emphasizing feeling and emotion)
  • Psychomotor Domain (concerned with motor skills)




Internet Resources:




Gunter Krumme 1995/2012/2014 [krumme(at)comcast(dot)net]